Basics of interior design

Elements of interior design

What are the 7 elements of design?

The principles and elements of interior design – it Interior design basics and essential methods and tools for designing spaces. In this article, we will discuss 7 element of design. Interior design elements include space, form (shape), pattern, line, light, color, scale, and texture. We’ll also dive into the 5 principles of design: balance, focus and emphasis, rhythm, proportion and harmony, and unity but we are saving that for another article.

Element 01:  SPACE ELEMENT

Space in interior design is an important element. Interior space is defined by structural elements such as walls, ceiling, floor, and columns. Negative space in interior design is empty space. Positive space is a filled space.


Space in interior design

In this space, designers created an open space And painted the walls a bright white. The black elements throughout create contrast and visual interest.  Positive space is created through the use of furniture, decor, and architectural elements such as cabinetry, while negative space is the unused space throughout. The varying tones of grey and the shape of the sofa bring visual interest to this living space accomplishing an equilibrium.


This design is a great example of a closed space concept. In this picture, the dark walls and furniture would be considered the negative space and in contrast, the neutral accent decor, trim, and windows create an equilibrium of positive space.  Some may find this dark room invites cozy and industrial vibes; while others may find this to be too dark.  I believe that this space maintains an equilibrium because of the contrast, scale of furniture, and décor placement.

Element 02: SHAPE | form in interior design

Lines joined together to form the shape or shapes of objects. The most common shapes in our homes are squares, rectangles, and triangles-created by straight lines; and circles and ovals-created by curved lines. There are two main types of forms: NATURAL or GEOMETRIC. And they can be  OPEN and CLOSED.

Rectangular shapes are more pleasing to the eye than square ones. Rectangular shapes are considered the norm in architecture and interior design, but too many of them can make the space boring. Interest is added by varying their size, proportions, color, texture, placement, or orientation.

A circle is a compact form that represents unity and continuity. Although this is usually a stable shape, it can change in combination with other lines and shapes. Curved shapes, such as curved lines, Express softness, and fluidity.

When forms are extended into the third dimension, they create volume. The space formed by walls (a room) is the most common volume in interior design. Fully geometric spaces may seem too formal or restricted, while smooth spaces may be open and tangled, so it is necessary to balance these forms.

Element 03: LINE ELEMENT

There are three types of lines used in interior design: vertical, horizontal, and dynamic.

lines in interior design

lines in interior design

Several parallel vertical straight lines are already able to give the interior some movement. And at the same time raise the ceiling visually. It is not necessary to choose Wallpaper with vertical stripes or draw lines on the walls (although this is a very effective option), you can turn to other methods:

  • contrasting curtains on the sides of the window + cornice raised to the maximum height;
  • vertical wall decor (for example, a collage of several photos or posters placed in a line above each other);
  • accentuation of supporting columns protruding from the walls;
  • semi-fence with a vertical pattern;
  • sconces that give light up and down;
  • narrow and high paintings, posters, mirrors.

Horizontal lines are used a little less often to give the interior dynamics, but you can also refer to them. Especially if you want to visually lower the ceiling (then the lines are placed on the wall) or visually slightly push the walls of a narrow room (in this case, the lines will pass along the floor or ceiling).

Asymmetry, although it is an independent compositional technique, also brings dynamic notes to the situation, making the eye “jump”. You can learn more about the importance of lines in interior design here.


There are several types of lighting: Natural light. Its sources are the sun’s rays and the scattered light of the sky. The spectral composition of the sun’s rays has a beneficial effect on a person’s emotional state. Using this type of lighting when working on a room project is one of the tasks of the light designer.

Use natural light where possible. Mix and match the lighting to achieve beauty and comfort.

Artificial light. The main task of artificial light sources in the design of the room is to create a comfortable level of lighting with a shortage of sunlight. Modern sources of artificial light are most often lamps. Lamps direct the light. Using certain light sources can create a semblance of natural light.

The combined light. Option when natural lighting is supplemented with artificial light sources. This will increase the illumination in the desired areas of the room and create a comfortable environment.

Artificial light is divided into three types: ambient light, task light, and accent light.

Type 1: ambient lighting. The goal is to provide enough light in the room, to display the overall concept of the room design. You can implement the main lighting using chandeliers, suspended, overhead, and built-in lighting devices.

Type 2: accent lighting. It creates an atmosphere and a finished look in the room. Accent light is used when it is necessary to show the viewer the” content ” of the interior, to form an idea of the spatial location of objects. Use it to emphasize objects: vases, figurines, and other items that deserve emphasis.

Type 3: task lighting. This light is used for solving functional tasks: creating comfortable conditions for reading, working, or cooking. For this purpose, built-in lamps, table lamps, sconces, or floor lamps above the work area.


In this lovely interior, we are pleased by the playful jewel-toned hues. The natural shades offer balance and much need texture while the light fixtures offer the appropriate task lighting while also becoming the focal point in the space tying the various elements together creating an equilibrium in this space.

Color is a powerful tool for influencing people’s psyche. One shade is annoying and the other is inspiring. When arranging a home, the psychology of color in the interior must be taken into account. It can give joy and warmth, or bring boredom and despondency. To create a harmonious environment, you should carefully select the palette.


There are several types of texture. They are visual texture and actual texture.

What is visual texture? Visual texture is a drawing of a material, its pattern, for example, noticeable fibers of wood or veins of natural stone. Actual texture is the type of surface, or its relief: matte or glossy, smooth, or voluminous. When decorating a room, it is important to combine them correctly.


In this beautiful kitchen, the focal point quickly becomes the pattern tile bringing texture, pattern, and emphasis to space.

With the help of any, even the most simple ornament, you can significantly enliven and decorate your home interior. A well-chosen pattern will not only refresh the room but also give it personality. As a rule, combinations with an odd number of drawings look better than paired ones. If you’re going to play with prints, start with three different models that differ in size. When you have mastered the “rule of three”, try experimenting with five patterns. Combine large and small patterns. Sometimes the riskiest combinations look incredibly fresh and stylish in spite of everything — try it and find what is right for you.

The process of interior design becomes much easier when it is divided into stages. These seven elements will make the room visually pleasing. If you use these design elements as a guide for decorating your home, the result will be spectacular.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *